Inventory for the balanced assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy


The “Inventory for the balanced assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy” (INEP; Ladwig et al., 2014) assesses negative effects of psychotherapy from a patient’s point of view in the areas of:

  • Partnership
  • Friends
  • Family
  • Intrapersonal changes
  • Stigma and financial worries
  • Dependence
  • Therapeutic relationship and misconduct

The INEP can be used to determine whether and to what extent improvements and deteriorations have occurred in the above-mentioned areas of life and functioning of patients. In addition, it is differentiated whether these are attributed to psychotherapy or other circumstances occurring in the patient’s life.
The evaluation is performed separately for two scales. The scale “Side Effects” shows negative effects, which are due to correctly conducted psychotherapy from a patient’s perspective. The scale “Therapeutic Misconduct”, on the other hand, captures the negative effects that have been caused by an incorrectly performed psychotherapy from a patient’s perspective.

The INEP is available in two different languages (German/English). In addition to the original version of the INEP, a version for the assessment of the course of psychotherapy and online interventions (INEP-ON; Meyer et al., 2019) including instructions for the evaluation is provided below.




INEP questionnaire (german version)



INEP questionnaire (english version)



INEP questionnaire progress survey (german version)


INEP questionnaire progress survey (english version)



INEP-ON (online intervention – german version)


INEP-ON (online intervention progress survey – german version)



Evaluation instructions – INEP (german version)


Bieda, A., Pflug, V., Scholten, S., Lippert, M. W., Ladwig, I., Nestoriuc, Y., & Schneider, S. (2018). Unerwünschte Nebenwirkungen in der Kinder-und Jugendlichenpsychotherapie–Eine Einführung und Empfehlungen. PPmP-Psychotherapie· Psychosomatik· Medizinische Psychologie, 68(09/10), 383-390.

Gerke, L., Meyrose, A. K., Ladwig, I., Rief, W., & Nestoriuc, Y. (2020). Frequencies and predictors of negative effects in routine inpatient and outpatient psychotherapy: Two observational studies. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 2144.

Ladwig, I., Rief, W., & Nestoriuc, Y. (2014). Welche Risiken und Nebenwirkungen hat Psychotherapie?-Entwicklung des Inventars zur Erfassung Negativer Effekte von Psychotherapie (INEP). Verhaltenstherapie, 24(4), 252-263.

Meyer, B., Weiss, M., Holtkamp, M., Arnold, S., Brückner, K., Schröder, J., Scheibe, F., & Nestoriuc, Y. (2019). Effects of an epilepsy‐specific Internet intervention (Emyna) on depression: Results of the ENCODE randomized controlled trial. Epilepsia, 60(4), 656–668.

Nestoriuc, Y. (2015). Risiken und Nebenwirkungen psychotherapeutischer Behandlung. PiD-Psychotherapie im Dialog, 16(04), 36-39.


Letzte Änderung: 23. January 2021